The major components of a net-zero energy home as part of GE’s Net-Zero Energy Home project.Credit: General Electric. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: General Electric Plans Net-Zero Energy Home by 2015 (2009, July 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-07-electric-net-zero-energy-home.html Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Using solar panels, wind turbines, appliance monitoring, and on-site energy storage, General Electric has a plan to enable homeowners to cut their annual energy consumption (from the electric grid) to zero, in some cases, and at least minimize consumption in others. GE is piloting the technology this year, and hopes to commercialize the system by 2015. Californians bask in solar energy The GE Net-Zero Home Project encompasses a variety of technologies, as well as consumer incentives. The most expensive part of the project involves on-site power generation through solar panels or wind turbines, where applicable. As GE executives explained during a recent symposium at the company’s Global Research Center in Niskayuna, New York, a 3,000-watt solar panel array could be enough to supply all of a home’s consumption, and cost about $30,000 to install.GE is also converting its appliances (for about $10 per appliance) to be able to communicate with a home’s smart meter, allowing consumers to find out how much energy individual appliances use. The information will hopefully allow users to control appliances by using them during off-peak times (peak times are usually morning and early evening), encouraged by time-of-use pricing plans. Homeowners would also use an energy monitoring device called Home Energy Manager, which costs about $200-250. The Home Energy Manager is designed to control and optimize on-site energy generation and consumption, such as by running the dishwasher or clothes dryer at times when the solar panels are operating, and not during peak times.As part of the project, plug-in electric vehicles would be charged during the night. The vehicles and other storage batteries could also be used to store electricity for use during peak times. Overall, a net-zero energy home would cost about 10 percent more than the conventional kind, but would help homeowners save money in the long run, as well as make the electricity grid more efficient. If the system is easy to use and offers financial incentives for customers, GE hopes that it can encourage involvement where everyone can benefit.via: CNet© 2009 PhysOrg.com
(PhysOrg.com) — Physicists in Italy have discovered the first evidence of a rare nucleus that doesn’t exist in nature and lives for just 10-10 seconds before decaying. It’s a type of hypernucleus that, like all nuclei, contains an assortment of neutrons and protons. But unlike ordinary nuclei, hypernuclei also contain at least one hyperon, a particle that consists of three quarks, including at least one strange quark. Hypernuclei are thought to form the core of strange matter that may exist in distant parts of the universe, and could also allow physicists to probe the inside of the nucleus. The FINUDA experiment is located at one of the two interaction points of the DAFNE collider at INFN-LNF. As Elena Botta, a lead collaborator in the study, explained, DAFNE produces electron and positron beams. When these beams collide nearly head-on, they produce the phi meson (Φ), which decays with a 50% probability into a charged pair of K and anti-K mesons. FINUDA’s interaction point contains an octagonal prism with eight targets along the sides. When the anti-K meson interacts with a lithium nucleus in one of these targets, it can simultaneously produce a 6ΛH hypernucleus and a π+ meson of a particular energy. If scientists detect this particular meson, they’ve detected a signature of the strange nucleus formation. As Botta explained, 6ΛH production involves a two-step mechanism to decrease the number of protons in the lithium isotope, 6Li, from three to one, which produces hydrogen. Once produced, the neutron-rich 6ΛH hypernuclei slow down inside the target, and after 10-10 seconds they decay at rest into a π- meson and a 6He nucleus. The π- meson also has a particular energy, and scientists can easily detect it to give the signature of the decay. So both the formation and the decay of 6ΛH hypernuclei can be detected by searching for events with the presence of these particular π+ and π- mesons. Strange matterAs the first evidence for 6ΛH hypernuclei, the results could shed light on strange matter, which is hypothesized to exist at the center of ultra-dense neutron stars. The physicists hope to investigate strange matter further by producing strange nuclear systems.“Hypernuclei can be interpreted as the core of strange matter,” Botta told PhysOrg.com. “In particular, the possibility to produce strange nuclear systems containing two Λ particles will allow us to study the interaction between strange particles.”Hypernuclei could also serve as a useful tool to investigate the current model of nuclear structure, in which protons and neutrons are arranged in a stable configuration. “The fact that a hypernucleus has a strange quark does give it interesting characteristics compared to normal nuclei, since it allows the component L particle to act as a probe that can go very deep into the nucleus to test the description that the single particle shell model gives of nuclear matter,” Botta said. “In this respect, the study of hypernuclear physics allows us to get information not directly accessible otherwise.”She added that other hypernuclei with large neutron-to-proton ratios could exist in a stable state, even though ordinary neutron-rich nuclei are theoretically unstable. Neutron-rich hypernuclei seem to be an exception because of the way they modify the structure of a nucleus and increase its lifetime. During an upcoming experiment at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), physicists plan to search for 6ΛH as well as for other neutron-rich hypernuclei, such as lithium 10 Lambda (10ΛLi). Journal information: Physical Review Letters The particular hypernucleus investigated here, called “hydrogen six Lambda” (6ΛH), was first predicted to exist in 1963. Now, in a study published in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters, physicists working in the FINUDA experiment at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (INFN-LNF) in Frascati, Italy, have reported finding the first evidence for the particle. The FINUDA collaboration’s analysis of millions of events has turned up three events for the rare hypernucleus. Strange propertiesAs its name suggests, 6ΛH is a large type of hydrogen nucleus that consists of six particles: four neutrons, one proton, and one Lambda (Λ) hyperon. Since an ordinary hydrogen nucleus contains one proton and no neutrons, hydrogen nuclei that contain one or more neutrons are sometimes called “heavy hydrogen.” The most common types of heavy hydrogen are deuterium (which has one neutron) and tritium (which has two neutrons). Since 6ΛH has four neutrons plus a L hyperon, physicists refer to it as “heavy hyperhydrogen.”The L hyperon, which consists of one up, one down, and one strange quark, does an even more interesting thing to 6ΛH: it increases its lifetime from 10-22 seconds (the lifetime of the hypernucleus core 5H without L) to 10-10 seconds. When scientists first discovered the L hyperon in 1947, they observed a similarly longer lifetime than predicted for this “strange” object. That observation led to the idea of the existence of the strange quark, with strangeness being the property that causes the quark to live so long.DetectionWithout the L hyperon, it would likely be impossible for physicists to directly observe a hydrogen nucleus with four neutrons, since such a heavy isotope is very difficult to produce and has a very short lifetime. Another hypernucleus, 4ΛH, which has two neutrons instead of four, is more easily produced than 6ΛH in similar experiments and has been detected many times. But detecting evidence of 6ΛH is much more difficult. The 27 million collision events analyzed by the FINUDA collaboration represents about one full year of continuous data-taking from an experiment that spanned several years. Theoretically, the formation probability of 6ΛH is at least 100 times smaller than that of 4ΛH. Explore further Nuclear physics incorporates a ‘strange’ flavor More information: M. Agnello, et al. “Evidence for Heavy Hyperhydrogen 6ΛH.” Physical Review Letters 108, 042501 (2012) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.042501 Copyright 2012 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. A view of one of the three events found by FINUDA: a schematic frontal view of the apparatus is shown, and the two blue lines represent the two ‘pi’ mesons moving along opposite bent trajectories in the magnetic field of the apparatus. Image credit: FINUDA collaboration Citation: Physicists discover evidence of rare hypernucleus, a component of strange matter (2012, February 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-02-physicists-evidence-rare-hypernucleus-component.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. 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