A new mechanism for polar patch formation

first_imgPolar patches are regions within the polar cap where the F-region electron concentration and airglow emission at 630 nm are enhanced above a background level. Previous observations have demonstrated that polar patches can be readily identified in Polar Anglo-American Conjugate Experiment (PACE) data. Here PACE data and those from complementary instruments are used to show that some polar patches form in the dayside cusp within a few minutes of the simultaneous occurrence of a flow channel event (short-lived plasma jets ∼2 km s−1) and azimuthal flow changes in the ionospheric convection pattern. The latter are caused by variations of the y-component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The physical processes by which these phenomena cause plasma enhancements and depletions in the vicinity of the dayside cusp and cleft are discussed. Subsequently, these features are transported into the polar cap where they continue to evolve. The spatial scale of patches when formed is usually 200-1000 km in longitude and 2°-3° wide in latitude. Their motion after formation and the velocity of the plasma within the patches are the same, indicating that they are drifting under the action of an electric field. Occasionally, patches are observed to occur simultaneously in geomagnetic conjugate regions. Since some of these observations are incompatible with the presently-accepted model for patch formation involving the expansion of the high latitude convection pattern entraining solar-produced plasma, further modeling of the effects of energetic particle precipitation in the cusp, the consequences of flow channel events on the plasma concentrations, and the time dependence of plasma convection as a result of interplanetary magnetic field By changes is strongly recommended. Such studies could be used to determine the relative importance of this new mechanism compared with the existing theory for patch formation as a function of universal time and season.last_img read more

Stochastic perturbation of divide position

first_imgPerturbation of divide position is considered by a linearization about the Vialov-Nye solution and also about related solutions with 0(1) relief. Relaxation times of one-sixteenth the fundamental thickness/accumulation-rate time-scale are found for the Vialov-Nye configuration, while substantial basal topography can halve the rate of relaxation. Steady divide position is most sensitive to anti-symmetric accumulation-rate distributions near the divide, but transient divide motion is most strongly excited by anti-symmetric accumulation rate variations halfway between the margin and the divide. Relaxation times for the Antarctic Peninsula divide position are estimated to be around 200 years, while the larger Greenland ice sheet has a divide-position relaxation time of around 600 years. Modelling accumulation rate as a white-noise process permits analysis of divide perturbation as a (stochastic) Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, where the standard deviation of the response is proportional to the standard deviation of the forcing. If observed accumulation-rate variability in the Antarctic Peninsula were antisymmetric about the divide, it would be sufficient to force the divide position to fluctuate with standard deviation 10-20 times the depth of the ice sheet. There appears to be sufficient noise to cause Raymond bumps to be spread significantly. More data on the statistical variation of accumulation with position are needed. Random forcing will increase the complexity of any fold structures created in the divide region and in particular the number of such structures intersecting any borehole.last_img read more

Indian Coast Guard, Navy Hone Search and Rescue Skills

first_img View post tag: Defense View post tag: search Training & Education Indian Coast Guard, Navy Hone Search and Rescue Skills View post tag: skills Events comprised of Search and Rescue (SAR) Workshop (Table Top Exercise) conducted on 19 March 2014 followed by Search and Rescue Exercise conducted at sea off Mumbai on 20 March 2014. A total of 21 international observers form 10 maritime nations witnessed the exercise. Besides this, members of National Maritime Search and Rescue (NMSAR) Board from various central and state departments, resources agencies and other maritime stakeholders also participated in the exercise. The SAR Workshop and Exercise assumes significance in the wake of past SAR operations like rescue of crew of MV Mol Comfort, which broke into two portions about 900 Nautical Miles way from Indian west coast in June 2013 and rescue of MV Asian Express, which sank 90 Nautical Miles off Minicoy Islands in July 2013. “During the exercise, the rescue demonstration by ships and aircraft of various resource agencies showcased India’s SAR capability and its commitment to safety of life in distress at sea”, the Indian MoD said in a release.“Search and Rescue services need to respond to every situation with utmost alacrity displaying professional acumen and exercising full coordination with other support agencies. Given the multiplicity of stake holders, this calls for best SAR practices, efficient on ground coordination and enhanced integration with global SAR system.” With this aim and to check the efficiency of SAR mechanism, Vice Admiral Anurag G Thapliyal, Director General of Indian Coast Guard being the National Maritime SAR coordinating Authority During the exercise, a scenario of a cruise liner colliding with a cargo vessel and two fishing trawlers off Mumbai was demonstrated. Post collision, Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIIRBs) from merchant vessels and Distress Alert Transmitters (DATs) from fishing trawlers were activated to check the efficiency of distress alert relay mechanisms. After receipt of distress message, SAR operations simulating ‘Mass Rescue’ through a coordinated SAR operation involving various SAR resource agencies were demonstrated. Ten ships, two Dornier aircraft, two helicopters from Coast Guard, one Indian Naval Ship, one Indian Air Force helicopter, two offshore support vessels from ONGC besides resource agencies like Airport Authority of India (MB), Indian Mission Control Centre (INMCC) Bangaluru, Maharashtra Administration, Maharashtra Police, and MbPT participated in the exercise. “Proactive approach adopted on SAR, particularly for ensuring safety of fishermen has yielded positive results and contributed onwards growing confidence amongst the fishing community in the maritime SAR network in India, resulting in 6292 saved lives at sea till 24 Mar 14,” the release concluded. [mappress]Press Release, March 24, 2014, Image: Indian Navy View post tag: Navy View post tag: Defence View post tag: rescue Back to overview,Home naval-today Indian Coast Guard, Navy Hone Search and Rescue Skills View post tag: Naval View post tag: News by topic March 24, 2014 INDIAN TEAMS ENGAGE IN SAREXIndian Coast Guard, being the coordinator of the Maritime Search and Rescue (M-SAR), conducted the 6th Search and Rescue Workshop and Exercise (SAREX-14) from 19 to 20 March 2014 in and around Mumbai. View post tag: Hone View post tag: Indian View post tag: Guard View post tag: coast Share this articlelast_img read more

Ashmolean Museum to close till August

first_imgThe Ashmolean Museum is due to close for a year while major redevelopment takes place.The museum, founded in 1683, is the UK’s oldest public museum, and its collections range from Bronze Age tools to drawings by Michelangelo and Raphael.Rick Mather, an award winning architect, has designed a new building that doubles the existing gallery space and features 39 new galleries, a new education centre, and Oxford’s first roof-top cafe.The museum will reopen in Autumn 2009.last_img

Bod’s book switch completed on schedule

first_imgThe Bodleian Libraries yesterday finished a transfer of 7 million books from Oxford to a purpose built warehouse 28 miles away in Swindon.The Book Storing Facility (BSF), which cost £26 million to create, covers 13 acres and has 153 miles of shelving. It is the new home of some of the Bodleian’s lesser-used material.The biggest book move in the Bodleian’s history was completed on schedule on December 23rd, and has been hailed as “an extraordinary success”.Librarian Sarah Thomas said, ‘This has been an important year in the history of the Bodleian.‘We have tagged and moved all our books, relocated our staff, prepared the New Bodleian building for its redevelopment, opened new facilities for readers in the heart of Oxford and refreshed and developed our IT capabilities.‘With our new storage facility at Swindon and renewed spaces for study in place or under development in the heart of Oxford, our readers can look forward to significant enhancements to our services in 2012 and beyond.”With the huge task of storing a copy of every book published in the UK, the Bodleian Libraries had recently been struggling to contain their immense number of volumes. Before the move, the situation was labelled by staff as “desperate”, as overcrowded stacks operated at 130% of their capacity.The new warehouse, which has the potential to be developed and expanded as bookstores continue to increase, has 3,224 bays with 95,000 shelf levels, as well as 600 map cabinets. These hold over a million maps.Students have been told that if they order a book from the new unit by 10am, it should be delivered to the Oxford reading room of their choice by 3pm the same day.Library staff use forklift trucks to retrieve books which are then transported to Oxford by road in a twice-daily service. Meanwhile some items will be scanned and sent to students’ computers electronically. It is estimated there will be 200,000 requests for items each year.Amy Rollason, a second-year English student at Brasenose, commented, “It seems to have been done very effectively and with little unnecessary disruption. The side-effect of having more journals available online will be a real plus, benefiting those who don’t use the Bod itself as often as well.”Patrick Reid, a Lincoln medic, also praised the Bodleian’s efforts, suggesting, “This is an impressive milestone for the libraries.” First-year Natasha Heliotis particularly applauded the efficiency of the links between the BSF and Oxford reading rooms, telling Cherwell: “I can’t believe they get sent so soon after ordering!”last_img read more

Oxford comes seventh in world university rankings

first_imgThe University of Oxford has been ranked as the seventh best university worldwide, according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU). In the table, which was published on Monday, Oxford gained three places from last year’s performance, scoring 58.9 out of a possible 100 points.Harvard maintained the top spot, as it has done since the ARWU’s creation in 2003. Cambridge moved up to fourth for the first time since 2009, having previously been ranked fifth. Oxford and Cambridge are, once again, the only UK universities in the top ten, whilst 15 of the top 20 universities are American.The AWRU is also known as the Shanghai Ranking as it is produced by the Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. It focuses on research quality, using six indicators which include the number of Nobel Laureate and Field Medallist staff and alumni as well the number of articles published in the journals Nature and Science. Although AWRU has been criticised for its focus on sciences over humanities, it is still one of the most highly esteemed university rankings across the world.Methods of ranking universities can differ considerably, with the Times Higher Education (THE) World Rankings earlier this year placing Oxford second and the California Institute of Technology first. Meanwhile, the QS World University Rankings, published by Quacquarelli Symonds, placed Cambridge second and Oxford sixth. Differences in ratings can be attributed to the different metrics used in each system. The THE chooses to focus to a greater extent on teaching, whilst QS has historically been criticised for reliance on reputation and peer review indicators.2016 is the first year in which Chinese universities have appeared in the AWRU’s top 100. Tsinghua University was placed 58th and Peking University 71st. This is also the first year in which more than five Australian universities have been awarded top 100 places.last_img read more

Find Your Indiana School’s 2019 Federal Accountability Rating

first_imgFind Your Indiana School’s 2019 Federal Accountability RatingBy Emma Kate Fittes   January 5, 202Most of Indiana’s more than 1,800 schools are considered to be meeting or approaching the state’s expectations, according to 2019 federal ratings released Friday.Few schools — just 87 — rose to “exceeding expectations.” Around 200, or 11%, were not considered to be meeting standards and scored in the lowest category.The 2019 federal ratings offer the first gauge of how schools performed last year while state A-F grades remain tied up by a potential hold harmless exemption to protect schools from low test scores in the first year of the new ILEARN exam.The state adopted this second measure in 2017 to comply with new federal requirements under the Every Student Succeeds Act without changing state grades. Schools are scored based on whether they are on track to meet the state’s long-term goals in seven different areas: test scores, growth scores, attendance rates, graduation rates, the percentage of students who earn honors diplomas, gaps in passing rates among student groups, and progress for English-language learners.This is the first year schools were put into categories. In 2018, they were given federal A-F grades, but the Indiana Department of Education altered its approach after the practice was criticized for being confusingBut it also makes it difficult to judge how schools are truly performing. State Board of Education members didn’t discuss the results before approving them on Wednesday. And unlike previous years, the Indiana Department of Education released a bare-bones spreadsheet that didn’t break down how schools’ grades were calculated or what scores were factored in, saying that would “undermine the hold harmless.”Under the state’s second accountability measure, known as federal grades, most of Indiana’s schools were considered to be meeting or approaching the state’s expectations. The federal measure, released in January, was not included in the hold harmless and was calculated using the low 2019 scores. FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailSharelast_img read more

Fireworks in Ocean City Canceled

first_imgDue to onshore winds that are forecast to increase in strength this evening, the First Night fireworks display scheduled for midnight has been canceled. All other events in Ocean City’s First Night New Year’s Eve celebration remain on schedule. All-inclusive admission buttons will be on sale at City Hall (Ninth Street and Asbury Avenue) through 9 p.m. The parking lot at Fifth Street and Boardwalk will now be open with free parking for First Night attendees. Ice-skating has been moved indoors to the Ocean City Intermediate School at 1801 Bay Avenue. Unlike the New Year’s Eve celebration last year, there will be no fireworks display to cap off the First Night festivities at midnight tonight. A forecast for strong onshore winds forced the city to cancel the fireworks. (Photo courtesy city of Ocean City)last_img read more

Ford bids to take Caffè Nero private

first_imgCaffè Nero’s chairman and CEO Gerry Ford has made a £225m bid to buy-out the coffee shop chain, which is yet to be agreed by shareholders.Taking the company private will give “management greater flexibility to pursue its expansion strategy to add to its current network of 290 shops”, said Ford. He formed a company called Rome Bidco to make the bid.The company aims to increase Caffè Nero’s number of UK stores to 450 and is also believed to be keen to expand in Middle Eastern and Northern European countries.”Caffè Nero joined the main market in 2001 at 50p a share. Since then it has grown from 58 stores to 290. I believe the next stage of the company’s development will be best achieved in the private arena as we continue our expansion going forward,” said Ford.Shareholders would receive 270p per share in last week’s deal and the company would expect to delist in January.Gerry Ford’s Saratoga and Paladin Partners companies are the two biggest shareholders of Caffè Nero.They will exchange their 43% stakes for ordinary shares and preferred equities of Rome Bidco.For the financial year ending 31 May 2006, Caffè Nero had turnover of £90.7m, up from £70.1m in 2005. Profit leaped from £3.8m to £7.3m. Caffè Nero was founded by Gerry Ford in 1997.last_img read more

The turkeys of Harvard

first_img Harvard staff pen letters of appreciation at Giving Thanks event Related Notes of gratitude, gifts of charity And it seems the turkeys have grown fond of the famous address. “For years the number of birds stood at seven,” said Tseko, “but last week President Bacow and his wife, Adele, counted 10.” The Bacow’s younger son Kenny, had a theory for the uptick: “Smart plan,” he told his parents. “Hide out at the home of a couple vegetarians for the next few weeks.”While they have a reputation for becoming aggressive when threatened (and sometimes, when people are just minding their own business), ornithologist Scott Edwards said undergraduates have nothing to fear. The turkeys in the Yard aren’t bothered by the throngs of people milling about, he said, because “they’ve learned that these people pass by, and they don’t seem to cause harm.”What he does fear is that the students will miss them altogether.“I’ve been on campus on Oxford Street with hundreds of students parading past this turkey next to Mallinckrodt Hall without even ever seeing it,” said Edwards, professor of organismic and evolutionary biology. “I worry that students on campus may not notice these amazing birds,” he said.Edwards, who is also curator of ornithology at Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology, wants harried students to stop and take a moment to appreciate the birds and their subtle, iridescent plumage. Their feathers are filled with keratin and other proteins that reflect light, he said, lending them “satiny, reflective hues.” Those feathers, he added, are in fine display when a male tries to impress a female by fanning its tail.“It’s quite extraordinary. Clearly the males are working pretty hard to get the attention of those females.”For Edwards, part of a wild turkey’s appeal is the way in which the bird brings to mind its prehistoric ancestors. “People don’t realize that some dinosaurs were actually turkey-sized … the way wild turkeys walk and the way they are shaped just remind me so much of some of these now-extinct dinosaurs.”,When it comes to their food, the birds, he said, are “definitely generalists,” eating meat, insects, and plants. When it comes to their wings, wild turkeys are adept at using them, said Edwards, but it isn’t always pretty.“They have this muscle type in their flight muscles that has lots of mitochondria and lots of muscle fibers good for short bursts of energy, not long-distance stuff … and that allows them to get up into trees. They are not the most graceful fliers, but they can make it around.”With their penchant for perching in branches, it makes sense that Harvard’s Arnold Arboretum, home to thousands of trees, is a hot spot. According to Brendan Keegan, a member of the Arboretum’s horticultural staff, two flocks made up of several birds each have been spotted recently around the park.“Two weekends ago, I saw about 15 in one spot, some in the trees but most on the ground in the Oak Collection,” said Keegan, who has worked at the Arboretum since 2016. They tend to gravitate to the paved paths. “They seem to like walking along the roads because our vehicles crush up fallen acorns, which makes it easier for them to eat. They also eat seed pods and berries from a number of our native and non-native trees, as well as the spontaneous herbaceous plants in the landscape.”As in other parts of the city, the numbers of Arboretum turkeys seem to be multiplying, he said. But while they have their chicks in the city park, they have also have to contend with the park’s natural predators.“I’ve seen a nest on the grounds, so they are definitely breeding here,” said Keegan. “I’ve also found several giant piles of plucked turkey feathers, so they are also being hunted in the landscape by coyotes and hawks, too.”“Still, if you are going to be a turkey in Boston, I can think of no place more beautiful than the Arnold Arboretum” said William “Ned” Friedman, director of the Arboretum and Arnold Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology. “In fact, I tend to think that the turkeys at the Arboretum are pretty sophisticated — they just seem to know that this is a Frederick Law Olmsted designed landscape.” It seems as if they’re everywhere these days. And while they’re perhaps not as plentiful as they were back when English settlers first piled off the Mayflower, they’ve made a major comeback across the country and enjoy a certain measure of celebrity, at least locally.We’re talking turkeys. Wild turkeys.On a recent cool fall morning, one such fowl strutted casually down Massachusetts Avenue at rush hour just outside of Harvard Square, seemingly oblivious to the speeding traffic. To its credit, it crossed in the crosswalk, lending credence to the claim that the wild ones possess more street smarts than their domesticated cousins. Cars slowed to a stop, and amused passersby pulled out smartphones to record the moment.At Harvard, the turkeys and their eager paparazzi are a familiar sight. The birds are regularly seen around campus, where they like to roost high in trees (yes, they fly). Their local numbers have spiked in recent years, mirroring trends around the state. According to the National Audubon Society, that started in the 1970s when biologists trapped 37 birds in New York and released them in Massachusetts in an effort to reintroduce the species.The turkey had nearly gone extinct in the U.S. Year-round hunting and massive forest clearing by newly arrived settlers starting in the 1600s almost spelled doom for the birds, which were estimated to number around 10 million before waves of Europeans began landing along the East Coast. By the mid-1850s New England’s wild turkeys were all but gone, and 70 years later the birds had disappeared from 18 of the 39 states they once inhabited, according to the National Wild Turkey Federation.Reintroduction efforts began in the 1930s and expanded thereafter. Between 1951 and 1974 America’s wild turkey population grew from roughly 320,000 to 1.4 million. Currently, there are about 6.2 million birds nationwide, with more than 25,000 in Massachusetts alone.Some of them live at Harvard.,Jason MacKay, Harvard’s supervisor of Landscape Services, said the animals have become much more noticeable in the Old Yard in the last two or three years, migrating from favored trees along the Charles River to the main campus and areas around Quincy and Prescott streets. Luke said workers are occasionally spooked when the big birds dart out from behind the bushes in the early morning hours, but no one has thus far been attacked.“For the most part they make way to anything we are doing, especially if we have any equipment going,” said MacKay. “Nothing has pecked at us. Nothing has gotten aggressive toward us. We’ve been lucky, I guess.”Sadly, some of the poults, or young chicks, who live in the Yard haven’t been as fortunate. MacKay said he noticed a mother turkey this past spring spending time near Canaday Hall with her brood, and it kept getting smaller.“I think the mother turkey had about six baby turkeys with it and they were very small. As soon as the mother would wander off, if there was one little straggler, she’d give out her little call and they would hear and come toward her. But the problem that we saw were the hawks. She started out with six, and then there were five and then four.”Another place the turkeys like to hang out is Elmwood, the official home of Harvard’s president, a half dozen or so blocks west of the Yard. The birds have been on the grounds for about the past seven years, said Kim Tseko, associate director of events in the Office of the President, who likens their flight to “something out of a Dr. Seuss book.”According Tseko, the large fowl have even dropped in on official functions. She recalled former President Drew Faust, during an event on the front lawn some years back, telling guests she hoped a turkey would make an appearance. About an hour later a bird obliged, strolling into the yard to much delight.“Everybody thought it was the coolest thing ever that we had a turkey,” said Tseko. “I’ve been on campus on Oxford Street with hundreds of students parading past this turkey next to Mallinckrodt Hall without even ever seeing it. I worry that students on campus may not notice these amazing birds.” — Scott Edwards, ornithologist At home or on campus? Longstanding family traditions or new ones? The classic foods or fresh takes? Much to be thankful for Dishing on Thanksgiving Harvard community shares bounty at Giving Thanks Open House last_img read more